If the reader perceives the text as a normal text in the target language, the translation has been covert. If language is a tool with a purpose, then there must be some purpose that this tool is for. We preferred meeting in person, but if the respondent s preference was different, then communication over or phone was also possible. When translators look for expert help in choosing a target-language term, they usually just name the original term and ask for the target language equivalent. But, in natural condition, the seismic wave is band limited and has quite low frequency. Võite täna minuga ühendust võtta, kui olete huvitatud selle laenu saamisest, võtke minuga rohkem teavet laenuprotsessi, protsessi kohta, nagu laenu tingimused ja tingimused ning kuidas laenu teile üle kantakse.
Transcoding as used by the Paris school would be a good name candidate. The situation on the market seems to be that overt translation is totally out of the question and rejected immediately by translation initiators, covert translation is the minimum requirement, and versioning is what initiators really want when they commission the service they call translation.
Any kind of equivalence, including functional equivalence, can not be of any interest to initiators, as exemplified by cases where there is no original to compare the translation to like business correspondence or research articles written for the sole purpose of being translated and then used in the target language only. Another consideration totally ruling out any equivalence is source text errors, which will always be there, as long as writers are human. It is inconceivable that any 23 24 initiator would prefer translations that contain an equivalent number of errors, over translations that do not.
Table 1 is an attempt at summarising these dichotomies.
Note the use of similar words on different sides of the divide, and an overall lack of agreement Berkley Binary Option Trading Company what is translation. Table 1. Roger Bell has presented one of the most comprehensive process models of translation. The model contains decoding and then coding through all linguistic levels, but still leaves out the translator as a communicator having a communicative intention, reducing the translator to a text conversion mechanism, even if sophisticated enough to cope with pragmatic decoding and coding.
Nevertheless, Bell has obtained empirical results to the effect that translators consider it Berkley Binary Option Trading Company to translate an uninteresting text well For Bernardini, translation is construction of meaning, not reconstruction a: 20 and translation competence is a subset of communication competence b: Instrumental views are sometimes expressed even about translating fiction, where linguacentric approaches have traditionally prevailed: when comparing among translational literature well-written works of fiction i.
Lederer also uses examples from fiction translation when arguing for interpretation. Nord has even gone as far as preferring instrumental translation in such a stronghold of linguacentrism as bible translation, also applying this preference in practical bible translation Bassnett has expressed incomprehension why translating and writing have come to be considered separate activities In terminology, Geentjes et al 9 have called studying language as a system on its own self-inflicted limitations.
The need for linguacentric transcoding and fear of normal communication has been called the professional inferiority complex of translators by Gross 83although only giving a general recommendation of avoiding this complex, and not proposing an alternative. The alternative could be something like the socio- 24 25 constructivist translation training programme of Kiralywhere improving the self-confidence of trainee translators is one of the central aims. The preference for communicating over text-processing is especially visible in lifeor-death situations.
Reporting on a study of military interpreters, Monacelli and Punzo write: [S]ervicemen [. They were more concerned with getting the job done.
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Their idea of interpriting did not include notions of fidelity or equivalence; they were instead concerned with establishing and maintaining contact in three-way communication among former mortal foes and foreign military invaders.
Defining translation Even though bible translation and literary translation were mentioned above, they form a negligible share of today s translation market in the Western culture. For Tymoczkothe difficulty with defining the object for translation studies seems to be in the attempt to extend it across temporal, spatial, linguistic, and cultural barriers.
But this is not necessary. For all practical purposes, it is sufficient to look at translation the way it is here and now, i. Tymoczko also refers to family resemblance and prototype theory, where prototypical members serve as cognitive reference points, and their features are more likely to be generalized to other members of the category than vice versa ibid: 91 and A person is usually more inclined to generalize about an entire category on the basis of typical or more representative exemplars than on the basis of atypical or less representative ones, using the Berkley Binary Option Trading Company itself as a point of reference for the entire category.
Such central exemplars are not stipulated by scholars; they are determined on the basis of empirical research that indicates what category members can be correlated with prototype effects. Remember that Wittgenstein tells us to look! There is no guarantee, however, that those specialists in turn have been looking instead of thinking.
A large portion of published translation theory, as well as the subjective theories held by individuals in the field, whether consciously or not, seem to be equivalence-based, source text oriented, textual, linguistic, loyal 3 Consider for example the proceedings that we call games.
I mean board-games, card-games, Olympic games, and so on.
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What is common to them all? Don t say: There must be something common, or they would not be called games but look and see whether there is anything common to all. For if you look at them you will not see something that is common to all, but similarities, relationships, and a whole series of them at that. To repeat: don t think, but look! Wittgenstein 25 26 to the author, etc. If we define translation as what translators are able to do while writing translation on the invoice, i.
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The main interest in this dissertation is what is only half jokingly called real translation because of its market share. Instructions, user interfaces, packaging text, product information, marketing material, etc. Similar results have been reported by Grade Globalisation has caused vendors to pay more attention to international markets.
As these markets evolve, they increasingly require products to be localised, i. Market pressures have brought about the concept of simship simultaneous shipping of a product in several languages, as opposed to shipping it in one language first and then localising into other languages. In a simship project timeline, translation is scheduled to overlap if not coincide with writing the original documentation. The next logical step is cooperative drafting a process where several language versions are authored simultaneously by a team of writers.
In such settings, authors and translators are both anonymous and speaking for the initiator of translation, usually the vendor company. They have the same organisational status, being either employed or subcontracted by the initiator. And finally, they are expected to work as a team, to help fulfil the overall business goals of the initiator, rather than pursue some separate agenda like the quest for equivalence in translation. Prototypical examples of texts authored and translated in this way include user documentation, marketing material, packaging texts, software user interfaces, training material, web pages, news, articles in technical support knowledge bases, definitions in termbases, etc.
In multilingual communities like Canada or the EU, this category also includes a large part of legislation. Their translation is covert rather than overt Houseand instrumental rather than documentary Nord Expressly excluded from the object of this discussion are most of the traditional main interests of translation studies: Translation of expressive texts literary translation.
Situations where the author is not anonymous and enjoys a higher status than the translator and the two are not working together in a team translation of historic texts, of president s speeches when initiated by somebody else except the president s office, etc.
Descriptive translation studies. Translation technology tools. The translation types in the first three items are excluded because of their relatively small market share both in terms of translation volume and especially in terms of turnover considering that many of these types are usually underpaid.
In those types, it is admittedly more justified than in the commercial mainstream to proceed from an analysis of the source text, although even then the analysis should be based on literary studies, contract law or other subject field in question, rather than linguistics. In any case, the following discussion is Interneti absorbeerimiseks kiiresti somewhat relevant Berkley Binary Option Trading Company those types of documentary translation in the sense that the translator must recognise the needs of the translation initiator, and choose a translation approach accordingly.
Descriptive translation studies is excluded due to different target groups: comparing source and target texts with the aim of obtaining empirical evidence about the translation process, for instance, is of great interest for academic audiences, while the discussion here, especially the proposed model Chapter 5.
Translation technology is excluded because today it operates on a formal level without the slightest understanding of what is really going on. It is the translator s job to add human intellect into the process. So, for the purposes of this dissertation, translation is defined as the activity that mainstream translation customers expect from the service provider when they commission the service they call translation.
Or Berkley Binary Option Trading Company the translator s point of view, the activity that can successfully and sustainably be performed while invoicing for a service called translation or having a job title of translator. The European standard for translation services EN has adopted basically the same solution it does not define translation quality, it defines a method Berkley Binary Option Trading Company working in such a way that the customer is happy, or that the final product corresponds to the entity agreed on between the customer and the translation service provider.
The translation as such cannot be standardised, but the service can. Spagna Multilingual specialised communication is understood here as consisting of translation, specialised dictionary compilation and other similar activities like 27 28 translation evaluation, term discussions, concept harmonisation, term standardisation, language planning.
Dictionary compilation is called in that way with the aim of avoiding the distinction between terminology and specialised lexicography. The objective is to get dictionaries that are internally more consistent than the ones published so far, rather than to get involved in Binaarsete voimaluste finantsmaast naming debate Human translation and machine translation Editing mainstream translations indicates often 4 that the result is suspiciously similar to machine translation: the content is gone, completely irrelevant equivalents found in a dictionary have been used and there is no distinction between terms and non-terms.
The translation is understandable only if the reader is able to mentally translate it back into the source language. Currently, machine translation has one fundamental flaw compared to human translation: the machine does not understand the content and does not attempt to say anything with the translation it does not have communicative intention. The whole translation lies in investigating the text and context 5 of the source and converting it into a target language text. Therefore, there is no need to fear that, at the current stage of development, machine translation will deprive human translators of their jobs.
But if the human translator does not understand the content of the translated text and, instead, bases her translation on the context, proceeds from words instead of concepts and interprets the text s instead of fulfilling her communicative intention, she really competes with machine translation in the same weight category and the fear of becoming redundant is grounded.
The quality assurance system of a major translation customer, for instance, considers a translation with 0. The quality of checked Estonian translations is mostly close to this limit.
In term sources, however, due to larger concentration and conciseness of the material, mistakes are also more frequent up to systematic incorrectness of a considerable amount of entries see Chapter 5. Bad human translation has been compared to machine translation also before, e.
Chesterman, Wagner 9. As used here, context does not include communication partners or their communicative intentions. This is worth mentioning, because the word context is frequently used in the meaning that does include those.
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Small informal surveys also indicate that the inclusive meaning is what semi-experts like translation students associate with the word. I choose to differ from the mainstream because the inclusive meaning does have another established term, communicative situation, while the exclusive meaning does not.
See also Costa for a discussion of types of contexts. There is no need to doubt that it works similar to understanding the text in a monolingual situation unless something goes wrong, the author takes into consideration her reader and writes in a way that best fulfils her communicative intention. For the author, the text is the means of creating certain thoughts in readers heads. Let us set aside the mechanism how and if at all such thoughts occur in readers Berkley Binary Option Trading Company and just admit that practical communication still usually works at least at a satisfactory level.
Communication between the author and the competent translator follows exactly the same pattern. The translator s brain generates thoughts similar to those of the intended readers of the source text; specifically for translators, this understanding process is followed by a new writing process in the target language. See e. Machine translation, on the contrary, works with texts and requires one-toone compliance between source language and target language text elements in order to replace them with one another.
Every source language term should be found one accurate equivalent, recognising, at best, its dependence on the context. The system can only use context, i.
Although the development of translation theory and machine translation technology has given an opportunity to speak about phrases, sentences and texts instead of terms, actually improving the usability of the result, there is still no human-like intellect involved to interpret the text meaning; Opi kaubikut binaarseid voimalusi a finished translation, it is strikingly disturbing.
Example: a localiser of an office software suite had a number of mandatory dictionaries, one of which has the following articles: swap file saalefail swap in v sisse saalima virtuaalmälujaotist või tegumipilti põhimällu lugema; sama mis roll in swap out v välja saalima virtuaalmälujaotist või tegumipilti välismällu salvestama; sama mis roll Berkley Binary Option Trading Company swapping saalimine virtuaalmälujaotiste või tegumipiltide töötlusega ajastatud vahetamine välis- ja põhimälu vahel; vrd paging 6 Translating a check box label in the page setup dialogue, Swap left and right margin, a translator actually did mechanically transcode the label as Saali 6 Arvi Tavast, Vello Hanson, Arvutikasutaja sõnastik: inglise-eesti.
Tallinn: Ilo, 30 vasak ja parem veeris. A human translator would never look this word up in a dictionary, let alone an IT dictionary. It would be easy to dictate to a text conversion system that does not perceive concepts that the word swap is translated as saalima in the context of virtual memory and vahetama in the context of page setup or mouse buttons.
The problem is that the translation system designer does not know in advance the complete range of texts to be translated, and is unable to foresee all usages of every word. Furthermore, describing context dependency of more subtle differences in meaning requires quite a lot of work and, sometimes, may not be possible at all: contexts are so similar that it is rather impossible to Berkley Binary Option Trading Company a formal algorithm for distinguishing between them without exceeding the cognitive capabilities of the text conversion system that they are written for.
The above may be interpreted as simple and academically uninteresting incompetency of the translator, but that is not the only possibility. Similar points of view have been knowingly published by experienced researchers, hinting once more towards fundamentally different but equally possible worldviews. Principles of terminology work in Latvia Skujina 22 are one extreme example: one term in the source language must have one particular term in the target language as an equivalent; different terms in the source language must have different terms in the target language as equivalents; a polysemous source language word acting as a term must have a native language term with a corresponding scope of meaning; when choosing the native term, also the possibility of translating it back into the source language must be considered.
Uno Mereste : 85 86 has called this tertiary term formation in addition to primary and secondary a non-scientific method that proceeds from a term existing in some foreign language and tries to find a target language equivalent to it as a lexical unit, without knowing the exact concept.
Mereste complains about the large share of tertiary term formation in the development of the Estonian economic terminology, and cautions to avoid it by all means. The non-scientific nature of the method is disputable, because linguistic translation theories, which are sometimes considered scientific, have recommended using this method for getting a target language text until very recently.
Even the book by Hatim and Mason cited abovedespite its encouraging title The Translator as Communicator and introduction, still concentrates on analysing source language texts and their possible target language equivalents, regarding the translator as a passive conversion mechanism, even if sophisticated enough for working on the level of whole texts and their pragmatics.
Specialised dictionaries also reveal the linguacentric worldview. Authors of almost all specialised dictionaries published in recent years in Estonia have 30 31 compiled their dictionaries based on words instead of concepts, although this method is much less error-proof than the theoretically advised opposite approach see Chapter 5, Compilation of specialised dictionaries. The same applies to term discussions. When translators look for expert help in choosing a target-language term, they usually just name the original term and ask for the target language equivalent.
When explained that the source term is used for designating at least three concepts, each with its own designation s in the target language, they often ask: But which of these target terms is the correct one?
Signs, words and concepts Another useful distinction for the topic here is that between the semiotic theories of Saussure and Frege, especially considering that through structuralism and its still remaining influence on mainstream linguistics, especially the applied branch of language instruction in general education, the former of these two is quite influential. With this influence, however, comes also simplification and the danger of misunderstanding.
Let us compare the translation process in a system based on Frege and in a system based on extremely simplified Saussure.
According to Frege, the linguistic sign has Kaubandus binaarse valikuga IQ Sinn which in terminology corresponds to a concept or a unit of understanding and a Bedeutung corresponding to an object. These are not parts of the sign, they are Berkley Binary Option Trading Company associated with the sign using relations of designation and denotation, respectively.
So, concepts Berkley Binary Option Trading Company clearly considered to be separate from the linguistic signs that designate them, and therefore from language as a sign system. The only way to imagine translation is the following: identify the concept corresponding to the source language sign in the source culture, find the closest possible concept in the target culture, and find a suitable target language sign to signify that.
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There can be no direct connection between the signs of two languages, no matter how we simplify the model signs are related only through the corresponding concepts. Therefore, concepts as knowledge units are unavoidably of great importance and, when thinking of translating, clearly acknowledged. Saussure s system deals with concepts too, of course, but with a little difference: the linguistic sign consists of the signifier and the signified, i.
There s nothing wrong with that in itself the translation can be made exactly how it is described above: replace the source language sign with the target language sign so that the signified concepts would coincide as closely as cultural differences allow.
With such approach, the result is quite similar both in theory and in Optsioonide kaupleja logi to the Fregean system. The difference is, however, that there is temptation to simplify Saussure s model: to leave out details of sign composition and concentrate on important things that the target language sign is found for the source language sign as a linguistic equivalent, without taking interest in anything extralingual.
So it suggests that the target language sign can be chosen 31 32 based on phonetic Berkley Binary Option Trading Company, bilingual dictionaries, memories from language classes, etc. The concept loses its central place, becomes something vague hidden behind the linguistic form of the signifier, and may even start to be equated with that form. Associating Saussure with the equating of the concept and the word is not completely arbitrary, because several answers of the pilot study Chapter 2 actually mentioned him by name, terms of his theory signifier, signified, also in other languages or a more or less distorted description of his theory.
No other names or theories were referred to in the answers.
It appears that, firstly, Saussure is the only philosopher of language people have heard of and, secondly, his theory has been remembered in a grotesquely simplified form. One of the main criteria for evaluating a specialised language is its ability to transmit the speaker s communicative intention economically and unambiguously.
Terminology, as a field of activity, can be compared to shoemaker s shoes central terms of the field are polysemous to the extent of threatening the success of communication. This mainly concerns the word mõiste conceptwhich many terminology theories use for designating their central concept and which has a key role in learning and teaching terminology as well as translation.
The communication problem arises because people assign directly opposite meanings to the word mõiste. In addition to the meaning of a unit of knowledge as found in all known written sources, it is surprisingly widespread to consider it a lexical unit.
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